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Structurally, these forests are rather simple, consisting of 2 layers generally: an overstory and understory. However, some forests may support a layer of shrubs. Pine forests support an herbaceous groundlayer that may be dominated by grasses and forbs that lend themselves to ecologically important wildfires. In contrast, the moist conditions found in temperate rain forests favor the dominance by ferns and some forbs.

Coniferous Forest Biome

Temperate rain forests only occur in 7 regions around the world - the Pacific Northwest, the Validivian forests of southwestern South America, the rain forests of New Zealand and Tasmania, the Northeastern Atlantic small, isolated pockets in Ireland, Scotland, and Iceland , southwestern Japan, and those of the eastern Black Sea. Forest communities dominated by huge trees e. The Klamath-Siskiyou ecoregion of western North America harbors diverse and unusual assemblages and displays notable endemism for a number of plant and animal taxa. Biodiversity Patterns Most tree species and larger vertebrates have relatively widespread distributions; considerable local endemism and beta diversity occurs in some ecoregions in invertebrates, understory plants, and lichens, particularly in rain forests or on unusual soils; may have extremely diverse invertebrate faunas or herbaceous floras; altitudinal specialization occurs but is less pronounced than in the tropics.

Minimum Requirements Disturbance regimes such as fire, windthrow, and epizootics can vary considerably within this major habitat type, but the extremes are typically of sufficient size and frequency as to make small patches of natural forest have only limited conservation value; many species highly specialized on late-successional forests; larger carnivores very wide-ranging with large home ranges; some species track resources that vary widely in space in time e.

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Sensitivity to Disturbance Larger carnivores highly sensitive to human activities including low intensity hunting; large number of species highly sensitive to logging and fragmentation of natural forests, particularly late-successional species; late-successional species and features typically regenerate slowly; many temperate forests require periodic fires to maintain successional processes and many species; exotic species can have extensive and significant impacts on natural forest communities.

World Wildlife Fund 24th Street, N. Washington, DC Search Search w. Business Policy Partnerships Science. WWF Toggle Nav v k. Temperate Coniferous Forest Temperate evergreen forests are found predominantly in areas with warm summers and cool winters, and vary enormously in their kinds of plant life. Get the latest conservation news with WWF email. Sign up. Already have a WWF account? Log in. India, Nepal, Pakistan.

Wasatch and Uinta montane forests. Southeastern conifer forests. South Central Rockies forests. Sierra Nevada forests. Sierra Juarez and San Pedro Martir pine-oak forests.

Types of Forests - Explained with examples of trees - Geography

Puget lowland forests. Piney Woods forests. Okanagan dry forests. Northern transitional alpine forests. Northern Pacific coastal forests.

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Northern California coastal forests. North Central Rockies forests. Middle Atlantic coastal forests.

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Great Basin montane forests. Red spruce replaces white spruce as a dominant south of the St.

What do coniferous forests look like?

Lawrence Valley and into the northern Appalachians. Still further south in the high Appalachians, Fraser fir Abies fraseri replaces balsam fir and forms a high altitude association with red spruce as far south as the Carolinas and Tennessee. In the northwestern part of the biome, balsam fir is replaced by subalpine fir A. Much of the northern coniferous forest biome is covered with lakes, which eventually fill with mineral and organic matter to form bogs.

Coniferous Forests

A succession of plant communities is associated with the change in substrate and microenvironment. Thus, floating and submerged aquatic plants occupy the shallow waters near the shore, slowly accumulating wind-blown soil and decaying organic matter. This initial stage is replaced by invading sedges and grasses and in turn by shrubs, including Labrador tea Ledum groenlandicum , leather leaf Chamaedaphne calyculata , sweet gale Myrica gale , alder Alnus spp.

Tamarack, with a high tolerance for wet, cold, highly acid and highly organic substrates, is the first tree species to invade bogs.

Coniferous forest pictures

It is gradually replaced by black spruce, the edaphic climax on wet, boggy sites in the biome. Surrounding the Great Lakes in both the U. The original extensive stands of eastern white pine Pinus strobus that once covered this area have largely been destroyed by improper logging practices and white pine blister rust; most of these stands have been replaced by northern hardwooods or jack pine P.

Eastern white pine can be considered an edaphic climax species or a sub-climax species of long duration years. It reaches its maximum development on sandy loam soils. Moist sites in the Lake States often supported pure stands of white pine, while drier sites were more often occupied by mixed stands of red pine P.

On heavier i. Jack pine, with its serotinous cone habit , is a prime example of a "fire species," commonly occurring in pure stands on recently burned areas. On all but the driest of these sites, jack pine is replaced by white and red pine.