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The limitations of sampling and testing mean that, it is difficult to assure food safety Sara and Carol The short come in the food safety and quality system at that period had in no doubt facilitated the advent of HACCP system. It is therefore seen as a mighty concept that illuminates acceptability of food business and its product by consumers and competent authorities. The question is, do all food businesses that operate on HACCP necessarily have their product free from hazards to acceptable level?

Not in most cases. Though there has been huge adoption of HACCP in food companies, its effective application needs to be investigated Wallace et al.

Certifying the HACCP in food safety management system does not necessarily guarantee safe management of food hazards resultant total food safety and the quality of the end product Fotopoulos et al. It stress the company resources and simply not practical Ole However, this is where expertise knowledge is needed to drive food safety management career ahead in order to reduce food safety hazards to minimum.

When trained people are employed in food safety management career, it is unlikely that these would pose meaningful problems if there is adequate knowledge to represent and put those regulations into practical. ISO , basic quality management systems e. Figure 1: Illustration of total food safety and quality management system.

Source Sara However, it is essential to throw light on the benefits and deficiencies of food safety management system, and the aforementioned three perspectives which makes up the total food safety system. When implemented, it ensures trusted market for the food manufacturer.

Clients, end users and employees can build confidence in the end product quality. This trust is what businesses need in the market. There is a better efficiency because, with regular monitoring; only the efficient processes will be taking on board by the company making sure quality at all levels is not brought down. While some only do as little as possible to get certificate and make their customers happy Debby , it is not just the certificate that is required here. Consumers also want to see anecdotal evidence or features, such as clean environment that brings about safe and quality products.

To add to this, is the lack of employed or contracted trained or qualify personnel in some areas to handle the issue surrounding FSMS as some companies often goes for cheap labour Celaya et al. It is a tool that can be employed to reduce the risk of food safety failure Sara and Carol It cuts across sectors, such as Health, Water, Food and Climate change.

There are many standards but two are of major concern to food, such as ISO and ISO which carters for food quality management and food safety management respectively. ISO ensure the ability to bring about quality and safety of food Ralph It also reduces considerable cost by increasing the effectiveness of the food business and minimises wastes on errors in production Ralph For example, many leading companies in UK and US embarked on the development of quality management system and achievements of ISO registration Ralph Some authors had written about pressure being placed on small businesses that is urged to register for ISO certificate Ralph And for fear of losing their business, they often plunge into difficulties because many neither have the ability nor resources to maintain sound documented quality system in-line with ISO standard Ralph This is usually not the case, as checks and balances of operational activities are products of documentation which has the ability of improving the standard of a business at all levels.

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Moreover, doing away with record keeping is analogous to disregarding total safety management of food. HACCP primarily focus on health safety issues of a product, yet it systematic principles embrace food quality and safety assurances system. Due to its comprehensive nature having to deal with safety and quality on conjunction, food companies finds it more reliable.

The clinical and commercial consequences of food poisoning, as seen in the fatalities caused by Escherichia coli OH7 in USA, Salmonella Ryan et al. To a large extent, food industries now apply food safety management system based on HACCP principles. Companies find it objective to use the requirements for HACCP principles for a structured management of PRPs Sara in achieving the goals for total food safety system.

Other reason for which food industry uses food safety management systems, based on HACCP principles is highlighted as follows: 4. There is usually pressure on food industries to adopt system that will enhance consumer satisfaction. This is benefit and cost effective to the company. Visit our Help Center. EN FR.

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Many factors including, the lack of personnel hygiene, poor sanitary conditions and improper manufacturing practices during the production, packaging or any other step of the food chain can lead to food unsafety. The consequences of unsafe food can lead to serious health problems for the consumer; thus, the adequate control throughout the food chain is essential.


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All parties participating in the food chain should give their complete effort to ensure food safety. ISO is an industry specific risk management system standard developed by the International Organization for Standardization. It outlines food safety management system requirements for any organization in the food chain. The standard is applicable to all organizations, regardless of their size and type, that stand within the food chain range, from feed producers and primary producers through food manufacturers, transport and storage operators, subcontractors to retail and food service outlets together with inter-related organizations such as producers of equipment, packaging material, cleaning agents, additives and ingredients.

Service providers, for example mass caterers, food service industries, catering companies etc. An overview of ISO ISO specifies the requirements to plan, implement, and operate, maintain and update a documented food safety management system, where an organization in the food chain industry needs to ensure that food is safe at the time of human consumption. The requirements specified in ISO are generic and intended to be applicable to all organizations in the food chain, regardless of size and complexity, including organizations directly or indirectly involved in one or more of the steps in the food chain.

To ensure food safety along the food chain, ISO combines the following generally recognized key elements: interactive communication; system management; prerequisite programs; and the principles of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point HACCP. Food safety standardization evolves with ISO by adding: Greater emphasis on setting objectives, monitoring performance and metrics; Clearer expectations on management; and Vigilant planning and preparing resources needed for ensuring food safety.

ISO specifies requirements to enable an organization to: Plan, implement, operate, maintain and update an FSMS, aimed at providing products that according to their intended use, are safe for the consumer; Demonstrate compliance with applicable statutory and regulatory food safety requirements; Evaluate and assess customer requirements, and demonstrate conformity with those mutually agreed customer requirements that relate to food safety, in order to enhance customer satisfaction; Effectively communicate food safety issues to their suppliers, customers and relevant interested parties in the food chain; Ensure that the organization conforms to its stated food safety policy; Demonstrate such conformity to relevant interested parties; and Seek certification or registration of its FSMS by an external organization, or make a self-assessment or selfdeclaration of conformity to this International Standard.

Clause 5: Management responsibility. Clause 6: Resource management. Clause 7: Planning and realization of safe product. Clause 8: Validation, verification and improvement of the food safety management system. These key activities are briefly described below:.

The day-to-day management of an effective food safety management system relies on using the appropriate resources for each task. This includes the consistence of competent staff with relevant and demonstrable training and supporting services, awareness and communication. This is proven by documented information. Both internal and external communication of the organization must be considered in this area, including the format, content and proper timing of such communication.

This clause also includes the requirements on the creation, update and control of documented information. It should implement, operate and ensure the effectiveness of the planned activities and document any changes to those activities. When establishing these programs, the organization should consider the following:. These preliminary steps:. The team should refer to all the food safety hazards that are reasonably expected to occur, considering the type of product, type of process and actual processing facilities.

The hazard analysis determines the appropriate control measures, and categorizes them into those that are. Every organization needs an HACCP plan s that has been established exclusively for the facility where it is used and reflects the individual parameters of that facility. This documented plan should include the following information for each identified critical control point CCP :. Many organizations fail to realize that because of the nature of the information in these files, these reference documents must also be included in their document control program to ensure that the information in them is current and universally applied.

From using outdated forms to referencing outdated employee procedures, lack of proper document version control and enforcement is the most common GFSI compliance-related non-conformance. Reinforcing training so employees are made aware of document control best practices and policies is critical to keeping your compliance activities current.

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One of the most common activities and most common sources of error within any document control program involves publishing revisions to documents. These errors include:. If your food safety management system includes or makes use of external documents, these must be controlled in the same manner in which you control internal documents.

Some examples of external documents that may need to be included in your document control program include:.


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A best practice of document control is for the person knowledgeable about the content of a document to be assigned the responsibility of approving updates to it. In many organizations, this is interpreted to mean that all approval responsibilities are assigned to a single person across the organization.

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This could be the food safety coordinator or the document control administrator, despite the fact that it is not reasonable for a single person to be knowledgeable about all the procedures across the organization. A better approach to approval responsibilities is to identify individuals who can be responsible for authorizing changes based on function or discipline. By spreading the responsibilities across more people, your document control program is more likely to be current and accurate.

Setting up a process for document control and maintaining this process over time is a key to achieving and maintaining compliance. Confusion reigns in many organizations and especially with our food safety and quality professionals, as we debate and attempt to decide how best to address the requirements of FSMA. With the first compliance date of September drawing near, companies are feeling increased pressure to take action. The undercurrent to this question is the implication that changing the system to fit FSMA will cause it to no longer be tailored for the desired GFSI food safety scheme, and that a change could cause issues with those audits which are crucial for purchasing, marketing and sales.

Each organization has to make the decision for their own system based on their individual hazard analysis, risk tolerance and resources. Some over-arching themes begin to emerge, which may be analyzed to assist the decision makers in the creation of a road map to FSMA compliance. Are our critical control points CCPs automatically a preventive control? The official answer is that a preventive control should be any point in the process where, with a loss of control, it is reasonably foreseeable that a significant food safety hazard either will occur or has an increased likelihood of occurrence.

Remember this is intended to be a single point in the process, not the entire process. For example, the sanitation program may be managed as a prerequisite program; however, there may be a point in the process that requires special sanitation attention and without it, there is a reasonably foreseeable likelihood of a hazard.

Thinking about the concept, a logical conclusion is that a loss of control leads to a significant food safety hazard or, at the very least, increases the likelihood of said hazard. Therefore, one should only designate a point as a preventive control if the implications of conducting a recall in the event of failure have been analyzed as part of the risk assessment.

The organization must be fully prepared to conduct such a recall in the event of failure. Of course, any food processing organization would be remiss if they did not have an effective recall program defined and tested by regular mock recalls. Waiting for a true recall is no time to find out that your program has issues. Even without a preventive control, what happens if a supplier contacts the processor with an issue that requires a recall?

Through the evolution of compliant and mature food safety management systems, it is common for an organization to initially identify multiple CCPs and then, through data collection and process improvements, slowly reduce the CCPs to control points managed through OPRPs or PRPs over time. This is perhaps one of the grayest of gray areas in this arena. A recall for a deviation in an OPRP is not absolute, and it is actually handled by the food safety team and management on a case-by-case basis, depending on the risk. Parameters are required for a preventive control.