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They identify and describe an event or scientific experiment. They generate ideas based on past experience and make choices based on their personal preferences. Students can identify some components of a point of view.

Thinking in Science - Curriculum Materials | Primary Science Teaching Trust

They draw on previous experience to assist with their ideas, reasoning and when drawing a conclusion. Students actively participate in structured thinking activities. They practice some learning strategies to assist them to organise and demonstrate their ideas. Students participate in problem solving activities and can articulate some possible solutions and their outcome in structured practical situations. From Foundation to Level 2, the curriculum focuses on developing the knowledge, skills and understanding to express reasoning and to problem solve and learn more effectively.

Students become familiar with key vocabulary and simple strategies to structure and improve thinking. Students develop an understanding that thinking can be made explicit.

thinking in science:

By the end of Level 2, students use and give examples of different kinds of questions. Students generate ideas that are new to them and make choices after considering personal preferences. Students identify words that indicate components of a point of view. They use reasons and examples for different purposes. Students express and describe thinking activity. They practice some learning strategies. Students demonstrate and articulate some problem-solving approaches. In Levels 3 and 4, the curriculum focuses on developing the knowledge, skills and understanding to improve and monitor thinking.

Students learn and consider the advantages of different thinking techniques. Students learn there are different ways to respond to problems, visualise thinking and think more effectively. By the end of Level 4, students explain how to construct open and closed questions and use them for different purposes. Students select and apply techniques to generate a range of ideas that extend how problems are solved.

Design Thinking -- Maximizing Your Students' Creative Talent: Co Barry at TEDxDenverTeachers

Students describe and structure arguments with clearly identified aims, premises and conclusions. They use and explain a range of strategies to develop their arguments. They identify the need to make distinctions and apply strategies to make these. Students use concrete and pictorial models to facilitate thinking, including a range of visualisation strategies. They practice and apply an increased range of learning strategies, including visualisation, note-taking, peer instruction and incubation.

Students select and apply a range of problem-solving strategies. In Levels 5 and 6, the curriculum focuses on developing the knowledge, skills and understanding to test the strength of thinking. Students develop their capacity to deliberately manage their thinking. Students explore common errors that can occur in thinking. By the end of Level 6, students apply questioning as a tool to focus or expand thinking.

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They use appropriate techniques to copy, borrow and compare aspects of existing solutions in order to identify relationships and apply these to new situations. Students distinguish between valid and sound arguments and between deductive and inductive reasoning. They explain how reasons and evidence can be evaluated.

They explain and apply basic techniques to construct valid arguments and test the strength of arguments. Students represent thinking processes using visual models and language.


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They practice and apply learning strategies, including constructing analogies, visualising ideas, summarising and paraphrasing information. Students disaggregate ideas and problems into smaller elements or ideas, develop criteria to assess and test thinking, and identify and seek out new relevant information as required. In Levels 7 and 8, the curriculum focuses on developing the knowledge, skills and understanding to analyse thinking and the selection and application of a range of techniques to support effective In Levels 7 and 8, the curriculum focuses on developing the knowledge, skills and understanding to analyse thinking and the selection and application of a range of techniques to support effective thinking.

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Students learn strategies to assist them synthesise their thinking. Students develop an understanding that flexibility in thinking is often required and that certainty in thinking can be influenced by a range of factors. By the end of Level 8, students prioritise the elements of a question and justify their selection.

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Students demonstrate flexibility in thinking by using a range of techniques in order to repurpose existing ideas or solutions to meet needs in new contexts. Students explain different ways to settle matters of fact and matters of value and issues concerned with these. They explain and apply a range of techniques to test the strength of arguments. Students use a range of strategies to represent ideas and explain and justify thinking processes to others. They evaluate the effectiveness of a range of learning strategies and select strategies that best meet the requirements of a task.

Students independently segment problems into discrete stages, synthesise new knowledge at intermediate stages during problem-solving and develop and apply criteria to assess ideas, proposals and emerging thinking. In Levels 9 and 10, the curriculum focuses on developing the knowledge, skills and understanding to recognise and manage what is often implicit in thinking.

Students learn and apply techniques to progress, analyse and evaluate thinking. Students develop an understanding that it is often necessary to take a range of perspectives and to challenge assumptions. By the end of Level 10, students construct and evaluate questions, including their own, for their effectiveness. They demonstrate a willingness to shift their perspective when generating ideas, resulting in new ways of perceiving solutions. Students structure complex valid arguments.

They explain and apply a range of techniques to test validity within and between arguments. Students identify, articulate, analyse and reflect on their own and others thinking processes. They use, monitor, evaluate and redirect as necessary a range of learning strategies.


  1. Background.
  2. Main Site Computational Thinking Resources:;
  3. Related Teaching Strategies Topics.
  4. Designing a Thinking Curriculum.
  5. Staff Profiles;
  6. Dynamics of the Mammalian Sperm Head: Modifications and Maturation Events From Spermatogenesis to Egg Activation!
  7. Students develop, justify and refine criteria to evaluate the quality of ideas, proposals and thinking processes. Privacy statement Copyright statement Disclaimer. We have detected that your JavaScript seems to be disabled. Skip to main content Skip to navigation. Contact us Site map A A. Introduction Curriculum. Filter Filter.

    Critical and creative thinking across the curriculum

    View View levels consecutively down the page View levels in columns across the page View one level per page with elaborations. Show Level descriptions Content descriptions Achievement standards. Level B Towards Foundation Level B Description In Level B, the curriculum focuses on developing students understanding of the world around them, how to learn and solve everyday problems.

    Level B Achievement Standard By the end of Level B, students use their senses and cause and effect to explore and understand the world around them. Apply reasoning to routine tasks and identify their feelings about their work, action or the consequences of a choice VCCCTR Level C Achievement Standard By the end of Level C, students answer simple questions about familiar events and topics. Furthermore, theorists have posited that this model of learning must be applied to students as early as possible. Higher order thinking skills should be fostered in students before they reach secondary school.


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    7. In fact, it was in response to these research findings that many theorists designed the curriculum strategies found in Designing a Thinking Curriculum. Designing a Thinking Curriculum responds to the challenge of disengagement in the middle years of schooling by providing education professionals with ideas for the implementation of the thinking curriculum in their schools. Aimed at curriculum coordinators, education authority policymakers and teachers, the book comprises commentary and advice from leading experts in the field. Teacher educators and curriculum consultants describe how they have been influenced by theorists, their use of appropriate cognitive theories and strategies they have developed that will assist teachers to foster higher order thinking skills in their students.

      The authors suggest strategies for accommodating a variety of student learning styles and provide guidelines for establishing supportive school structures to implement the curriculum. Wilks examines the most influential theories and practices concerning thought and language that have contributed to the development of the thinking curriculum philosophy and the establishment of appropriate environments and learning tools in classrooms.

      Subsequent chapters detail practical innovations in specific year levels and discipline areas. Teachers demonstrate how they have modelled their curriculums around ideas generated by students; linked substantive, real-world problems to curriculum content; ensured that students achieve deep knowledge and understanding; and fostered higher-order thinking through the use of technology, creativity, the visual arts and mathematical and scientific ideas.

      David Reynolds of Princes Hill High School concentrates on the Year 8 curriculum, while Andrew Bawden of Overnewton Community College utilises theories of cognitive functioning to develop curriculum appropriate to adolescents in later middle years schooling. Wilks examines the use of visual artworks as thinking tools, while Julie Hoskins of Ruyton Girls School demonstrates how the thinking curriculum can be applied to broaden the traditionally rigid discipline of mathematics. Neil Chenery of the Australian Academy of Design creates a curriculum for teaching both technical and creative skills in multimedia studies.

      The chapter includes close reading of flawed exam questions with simple suggestions for reform, as well as a discussion of the benefits of authentic assessment.